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This study investigated the effect of catalyst type and washing procedures on theoxidationstability and cold flow propertiesbiodieselmade from castor oil. Castor oil was synthesized using two different catalysts;calciumoxide onglinkasupport (CaO-Al2O3) andpotassiumhydroxide (KOH) at 60 degrees˚C, molar ratio of methanol to oil 6:1 and catalyst loading 1 wt%. oil for 60 minutes. The obtained biodiesel was purified by washing with water and dry washing with ion exchange resin. Oxidation stability and cold fluidity of the produced biodiesel were determined (cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and flow test at low temperatures). The results showed that the oxidation stability and cold flow properties of biodiesel are independent of washing methods, but vary depending on the type of catalyst. CaO-Al heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification2O3showed higher oxidation stability with an induction period of 4.4 h compared to 3.5 h for potassium hydroxide (KOH)-catalyzed biodiesel. However, the values obtained in this study were above the ASTM standard of at least 3 hours. In terms of cold flow properties, the KOH-catalyzed process showed better cold flow properties than CaO-Al2O3catalyzed biodiesel. From this study, it can be concluded that the biodiesel samples will show very good ignition properties when used in diesel engines with ignition in the low temperature range, due to their satisfactory cold flow properties.
Biodiesel is an ecological, sustainable alternative fuel to crude oil. It is obtained by transesterification of vegetable or animal oils with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst , , . The production of biodiesel from first-generation feedstocks such as edible seed oil has been criticized as a potential cause of the food crisis because it competes with the food supply. It was considered as a possible cause of shortage of cooking oil. Using cheaper second-generation raw materials, such as non-edible oils, is one of the techniques to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Non-edible vegetable oils obtained from oil plants can potentially be a profitable feedstock for biodiesel production . Conventional and commonly used homogeneous alkali-catalyzed transesterification using NaOH and KOH generates a large amount of wastewater as the process requires huge amounts of water for purification. These catalysts cannot be recycled and sometimes produce soap in the presence of more free fatty acids . The high cost of biodiesel synthesis can be reduced by using a heterogeneous catalyst and cheap feedstock. Heterogeneous catalytic transesterification of vegetable oil provides a clean and efficient approach to convert low-quality feedstocks into high-quality biodiesel , . Heterogeneous catalysts are characterized by easy recovery, tolerance to raw materials with a high content of free fatty acids, elimination of the risk of soap production and minimization of biodiesel leaching . Of the various solid heterogeneous catalysts available, MgO, SrO, BaO and CaO are most commonly used for biodiesel production. However, the most commonly used heterogeneous catalyst is calcium oxide (CaO), which naturally results from its relative abundance and lower cost . It has been recorded that calcium oxide impregnated with alumina increases the active site of the catalyst, activity, reduces catalyst leaching and facilitates separation from the glycerol phase and extends the lifetime of the catalyst , . The reaction with this catalyst is also characterized by a shorter reaction time and easy to perform at a relatively lower reaction temperature . Oxidation stability is used to predict the stability of biodiesel under normal storage conditions . The presence of unsaturated alkyl esters, which are easily oxidized to aldehydes, ketones, esters, peroxides, alcohols and acids, is primarily responsible for the formation of insoluble resins and deposits, resulting in low oxidation stability . The resulting acids cause an increase in the acid number, while the resulting alcohol lowers the ignition temperature of biodiesel . Cold flow properties are important properties of biodiesel, especially in cold weather areas such as Russia and Canada. Three cold flow metrics used worldwide are cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). However, field results in North America do not correspond well to these characteristics, making the Low Temperature Flow Test (LTFT) relevant in this region .  blended biodiesel from different feedstocks to create blends with different fatty acid profiles and studied their oxidative stability and cold flow properties.  investigated the effect of storage time on the oxidative stability of biodiesel produced from different feed suppliers.  investigated the effect of the catalyst production process on the oxidative stability and cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas. According to , metal impurities reduce the oxidative stability of biodiesel/diesel blends, with copper having the greatest impact among the metals tested.  evaluated the effect of feedstock composition on biodiesel cold flow properties and oxidative stability, as well as the effect of treatment water acidity on these variables. Senra et al.  investigated the effect of glycerol derivative additives on the cold flow properties of biodiesel. The authors found that the additives act as diluents, stopping crystallization and improving properties. Bencheikh et al.  investigated the effect of blending diesel fuel with biodiesel from cooking waste on cold flow properties. The authors found that blending 80% diesel with 20% waste biodiesel for cooking reduced CP, PP and CFPP by 17, 21 and 21°C, respectively. Similarly, studies ,  also showed cold flow of biodiesel from different vegetable oils.
castor plante (Ricinus L) is a family membermilk food. The plant is said to be cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Nigeria, the plant is expected to grow well elsewhere in the northern region as a weed. The plant bears seeds that contain a significant amount of oil (55-69%). Castor seeds contain a large amount of highly toxic protein (ricin). Compared to other vegetable oils, castor oil has a high viscosity and excellent lubricity . Castor oil is the vegetable oil ricinol. It has a molecular weight of 928.5 g/mol and consists of 89-90% ricinoleic acid. Due to the presence of hydroxyl groups in the oil, it is known to stabilize oxygen, prevent the formation of peroxides and inductively prevent oxidation reactions. Due to its high oxidative stability, castor oil is a feedstock for second-generation biodiesel with considerable commercial potential , . To the best of the author's knowledge, no research has been conducted on the influence of the type of alkaline catalyst or the washing method on the oxidative stability and cold flow properties of castor biodiesel. The aim of the research is to investigate the influence of alkaline catalysts and the purification process on the oxidative stability and cold flow parameters of biodiesel obtained from castor oil.
Excerpt of section
Freshly extracted castor oil, CaO deposited on Al2O3catalyst was obtained from National Chemical Technology Research Institute (NARICT), Zaria. Analytical grade KOH beads are adopted. Castor oil was filtered through cheesecloth to remove insoluble impurities. Mixed ion exchange resin (indione) was purchased from Makurdi, Nigeria. KOH was chosen because of its solubility in methanol and is one of the most commonly used alkaline catalysts for homogenization
The produced oil was weighed (250 g) and placed in the reactor. It was then heated to a reaction temperature of 600˚C. To avoid loss of methanol due to evaporation, the reaction was carried out below the boiling point of methanol, 65°C.˚The catalyst was weighed (1 wt% oil) and dissolved in a calculated volume of methanol (mole ratio methanol to oil 6:1), which was then transferred to preheated oil and allowed to react at 60°C for 60 minutes with vigorous reaction. stirring. Follow
Characteristics of biodiesel
Properties of produced castor oil biodiesel samples are shown in Table 1. Iodine value (IV) is a measure of the biodiesel's total degree of unsaturation. Contains helpful tips to prevent various engine problems. The iodine number is based on the reactivity of the double alkyl bonds. A higher iodine value indicates the possibility of the formation of various decomposition products that can lead to poor lubrication and affect the operation of the engine
The paper investigated and successfully investigated the influence of the type of alkaline catalysts and purification techniques on the oxidative stability and cold-flowing biodiesel from castor oil. The biodiesel produced has a low iodine number (11.42–18.18 gI2/ 100g), saponification values. The high cetane numbers achieved (79.063 - 87.41) significantly exceed the minimum standard of 47. Viscosity 4.22 - 4.33 mm2/s is within the range of 1.9–6.0 mm2/S
CrediT author contribution statement
Faruk Aisha Abubakar:Steering.Umar Mohammed Garba:Steering.Mohammed Alhassan:Research and data storage.Usman Baro Abdullahi:Editing.Agi Damian Tyoor:Writing - Original draft.Abubakar Garba Isah:Writing - review and editing.
Declaration of conflict of interest
The authors confirm that they have no known financial interests or personal connections that could influence the work described in this article.
The authors acknowledge the support of the Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria, for providing an appropriate environment for laboratory analyses.
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Transesterification of palm oil in sub- and supercritical methanol with a heterogeneous base catalyst
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Solid acid as a catalyst for the production of biodiesel by simultaneous esterification and transesterification of areca palm oil
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The influence of alcohol on the production and properties of biodiesel
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Optimization of CaO/Al2O3 catalyst activity for biodiesel production by response surface methodology
Catalog application. I
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Effect of synthesis process on flow properties and oxidation stability of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas Biodiesel
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Effect of metal content on oxidation stability of biodiesel/diesel oil blends
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Advances in biodiesel development and characterization: a review
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Effect of vegetable oil methyl ester blending on biodiesel properties: oxidation stability and cold flow properties
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The effect of biological additives on methyl esters of fatty acids on improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel
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Evaluation of biodiesel cold flow properties, oxidative stability and improvement strategies: a review
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Optimization of sorbitan monooleate and γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles as cold flow improver in B30 biodiesel blend using response surface methodology (RSM)
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Schleicher oleosa L oil as raw material for the production of biodiesel
Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil by catalytic and non-catalytic transesterification of methanol under supercritical conditions
Prog. in energy and combustion science
Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of biodiesel production from Spirulina platensis algal biomass in a one-step extraction-transesterification process
Biodiesel processing by chemical purification with starch and cellulose as natural adsorbents
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Proceedings of the World Engineering Congress 2014, bind I
Selected articles (6)
Free vibration response of sandwich panels made of polymer composite reinforced with graphene in a thermal environment
Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 57, Part 2, 2022, pp. 834-839
This paper presents a numerical analysis to investigate the self-vibration characteristics of a sandwich panel where a graphene-reinforced polymer composite was used as the surface layer and titanium as a homogeneous core subjected to uneven temperature changes. Since these sandwich panels are exposed to different environmental conditions during operation, the response of the sandwich panels to vibrations in the thermal environment is investigated. The finite element method is used to study the effects of different graphene samples, temperature dependent properties and non-uniform temperature variations on the cracking and dynamic behavior of sandwich panels. A non-linear temperature-dependent material property is taken into account. The temperature distribution at 95% of the breaking temperature affects the dynamic behavior significantly, independently of the graphene samples. The homogeneous temperature field and the model heated in the center of the plate effectively influence the vibration behavior compared to the camel hump temperature field and heated at the edge of the plate. In addition, FG-X has higher natural frequencies compared to the gradation patterns FG-UD and FG-O. This article discusses some of the other responses we received.
The utility of human neutrophil peptide (1-3) in upper and lower urinary tract infections in children in Kerbala province
Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 57, Part 2, 2022, pp. 337-342
Human neutrophil peptide is an important component of the innate defense mechanism of the urinary tract. This objective was investigated by comparing the levels of HNP peptides (1-3) in the urine of patients with upper and lower urinary tract infections (UTIs) with those of controls. A case-control study was conducted at Kerbala Teaching Hospital from December 2020 to April 2021. Fifty patients with confirmed pyelonephritis or cystitis and 40 healthy controls without urinary tract infections. The level of HNP (1-3) in urine was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The mean concentration of antimicrobial peptide HNP (1-3) ng/mL was 5.8988 ng/mL in patients with pyelonephritis compared to those with cystitis 5.1203 ng/mL, while the total concentration of patients was 5.385 ng/mL compared with the control group. , where it was 0.9047.
Experimental investigation of the polishing process of Schott BK-7 optical glass
Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 57, Part 2, 2022, pp. 734-738
BK-7 glass has important applications in precision optics, mirrors, lenses, prisms, etc. due to its high quality surface finish, flatness and transmittance. Achieving a fine surface finish is always a challenge due to the high hardness, chemical resistance, brittleness and non-conductive nature that makes micro-level machining difficult. The proposed research is related to the polishing process to improve the polishing efficiency of BK-7 glass. Experiments were performed using a standard full bore polishing machine and a custom polyurethane polishing pad. Standard Taguchi L18 orthogonal table (mixed levels) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods were used for experiments to study the effect of process parameters viz. abrasive size (a), normal load (L) and relative velocity (v) on the coefficient of friction (µ) and material removal rate (MRR). The results of the ANOVA analysis showed that the relative speed is the most important parameter of the friction coefficient, the proportion of which is 69%. The polishing process can be further studied by considering various process parameters to develop empirical models to understand the material removal mechanism.
Friction hardening behavior of beta-titanium alloy Titan 1023 welded in aerospace applications
Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 57, Part 2, 2022, pp. 687-692
Experimental true stress and strain data were evaluated for solution treated and aged Titan 1023 beta titanium alloy compared to as-welded specimens. Bars with a diameter of 14 mm extracted from rolled Titan 1023 bars are welded by friction rotation method with optimized parameters. The strain hardening parameters of the solution treated, aged and welded specimens were determined using the Holloman equation with data obtained from a tensile test at room temperature at a strain rate of 3x10−4S−1. The strain hardening rate expressed in the Crussard-Jaoul (C-J) diagram of the alloy under all conditions before and after processing is explained. Hardenability of the alloy at STA and welding conditions was determined and presented. In the current study, the influence of the obtained microstructures on the strain hardening behavior is discussed.
Analysis of heat transfer time in concrete with rubber aggregate as a function of moisture percentage at very high temperatures
Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 57, Part 2, 2022, pp. 786-792
This article deals with the analysis of the thermal behavior of concrete based on rubber aggregates. The purpose of the work is to investigate the influence of humidity and the role of rubber aggregates on the behavior of the concrete under thermal conditions, and especially at the time of heat transfer in the material at very high temperatures, for example during a fire. The research is carried out according to two approaches, the experimental approach, which enables the determination of concrete properties in the initial state (density, heat capacity and thermal conductivity) and the numerical approach, which enables the characterization of the behavior of recycled concrete at very high temperatures. temperature and determine the heat transfer time. The results showed that recycled concrete based on rubber aggregate has several advantages when the concrete is exposed to high temperatures, for example in a fire. With a moisture content of 1.5% and a proportion of rubber aggregates of 10%, 20% and 30%, we can achieve 23.8%, 41% and 63.7% of the heat transfer time compared to the reference concrete, and with a moisture content of 3% and with a share of rubber aggregate of 10%, 20% and 30% we can get 22.5%, 40% and 63.3% compared to the reference concrete, and with a moisture content of 10% and a percentage share of 10%, 20% and 30% rubber aggregate we can still get 23.6%, 40.7% and 63.8% compared to the reference concrete. However, a high moisture content in concrete causes an increase in pressure and promotes an increase in the thermal gradient due to the energy required to evaporate liquid water, and the literature recommends that the moisture content does not exceed 3% to avoid thermal stability and cracking in the concrete.
Structural and circuit studies of ferroelectric charge density in BaTi0.95Sn0.05O3 prepared by microwave sintering
Materials Today: Proceedings, Volume 57, Part 2, 2022, pp. 408-411
Lead-free ferroelectric perovskite compounds (ABO3) gained so much attention because of the toxic nature of lead. Among them, barium titanate is a promising lead-free ferroelectric material. But this material needs further research to explore its technological application. Analysis of various structural and ferroelectric properties of polycrystalline BaTi0,95S n0,05O3(BTSO), was synthesized by the solid-state method. X-ray diffractograms confirmed the crystallinity of the sample. Rietveld refinement shows that the prepared sample crystallizes to tetragonal z-symmetryP4mmspatial group. The sample surface morphology was examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and the sample grain size was estimated using Image J software.Pmaks), residual polarization (PR) and the forcing field (miC) with an applied electric field to confirm the ferroelectric nature of the prepared sample. A positive peak negative trough (PUND) measurement confirms the improved behavior of the actual changed ferroelectric charge density (QSW) with respect to the applied electric field.
Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Selection and review under the supervision of the Scientific Committee of the Third International Conference on Aspects of Materials Science and Engineering.